Yingdong Zhu, Pei Wang, Wei Sha & Shengmin Sang (2016). Urinary Biomarkers of Whole Grain Wheat Intake Identified by Non-targeted and Targeted Metabolomics Approaches. Scientific Reports 6.
Laboratory for Functional Foods and Human Health, Center for Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC, USA
Bioinformatics Services Division, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC, USA
Mounting evidence suggests that whole grain (WG) intake plays an important role in chronic disease prevention. However, numerous human studies have failed to produce clear-cut conclusions on this topic. Here, a combination of non-targeted and targeted metabolomics approaches, together with kinetic studies, was used to investigate biomarkers of WG wheat intake and further explore the diet-disease associations. Via these integrated approaches, forty-one compounds were identified as the most discriminating endogenous metabolites after WG versus refined grain (RG) wheat bread consumption. The corresponding biological assessment of these endogenous changes suggests that, in contrast to RG consumption, WG wheat consumption may facilitate antioxidant defense systems and moderate the risk factors of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic diseases. A panel of urinary markers consisting of seven alkylresorcinol metabolites and five benzoxazinoid derivatives as specific biomarkers, as well as five phenolic acid derivatives, was also established to cover multiple time points and longer time periods for correctly and objectively monitoring WG wheat intake. Through these findings, we have established a comprehensive biomarker pool to better assess WG wheat consumption, and to monitor the endogenous changes that are linked to health effects of WG wheat consumption.