Journal Articles

A polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from table grapes decreases adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of inflammation and impacts gut microbiota in high-fat-fed mice

April 26, 2016

Brian Collins a, 1, Jessie Hoffman a, 1, Kristina Martinez b, Mary Grace c, Mary Ann Lila c, Chase Cockrell b, Anuradha Nadimpalli b, Eugene Chang b, Chia-Chi Chuang d, Wei Zhong e, Jessica Mackert a, Wan Shen a, Paula Cooney a, Robin Hopkins a, Michael McIntosh a (2016). A polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from table grapes decreases adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of inflammation and impacts gut microbiota in high-fat-fed mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 31.

Author Affiliations

a Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG), Greensboro, NC
b Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
c Plants for Human Health Institute, NCSU-NCRC, Kannapolis, NC
d Department of Internal Medicine/Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
e Center for Translational Biomedical Research, UNCG-NCRC, Kannapolis, NC

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine if consuming an extractable or nonextractable fraction of table grapes reduced the metabolic consequences of consuming a high-fat, American-type diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (LF) diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet containing whole table grape powder (5% w/w), an extractable, polyphenol-rich (HF-EP) fraction, a nonextractable, polyphenol-poor (HF-NEP) fraction or equal combinations of both fractions (HF-EP+NEP) from grape powder for 16 weeks. Mice fed the HF-EP and HF-EP+NEP diets had lower percentages of body fat and amounts of white adipose tissue (WAT) and improved glucose tolerance compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF-EP+NEP diet had lower liver weights and triglyceride (TG) levels compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF-EP+NEP diets had higher hepatic mRNA levels of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose TG lipase, and decreased expression of c-reactive protein compared to the HF-fed controls. In epididymal (visceral) WAT, the expression levels of several inflammatory genes were lower in mice fed the HF-EP and HF-EP+NEP diets compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF diets had increased myeloperoxidase activity and impaired localization of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 in ileal mucosa compared to the HF-EP and HF-NEP diets. Several of these treatment effects were associated with alterations in gut bacterial community structure. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the polyphenol-rich, EP fraction from table grapes attenuated many of the adverse health consequences associated with consuming an HF diet.

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