Phytochemicals: Natural Remedies for Emerging Viral Infection, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015. Lloghalu U (1), Khatiwada P (2), Khatiwada J (1), Williams LL (1).
1. North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, Center for Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies
2. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biological Sciencesf
Noroviruses are non-enveloped, single-stranded viruses that are part of the family of viruses called Caliciviridae. Emergence of different geno-groups was as a result of genetic combinations. Expression of histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) corresponds with an organism’s response to infection. Less than 10% of plant species on the earth have been utilized by human being, which indicates that more bioactive compounds are yet to be discovered. The outbreak of norovirus infections is made possible by their infectivity at freezing temperatures, accidental swallowing of virus-containing droplets, ability to resist of common disinfectants, contact with individuals lacking obvious symptoms, and meeting with recuperating persons – uncontrollable risk factors. Conversely, manageable risk factors include contact with diarrhea patients, frequency of cutting fingernails, ingestion of uncooked food, and households with looseness of bowels. Various methods are used to extract the phytochemical used in preventing the norovirus infection. These phytochemicals are effective at various concentrations in modulating bacteria, fungi and viral infections including those of mice and chimpanzee that mimic human infections. Inherent bioactive compounds in these phytochemicals are credited with affecting the microorganisms. The HBGA attachment of P-particles is effective in a dose-regulated fashion with various extracts. The Cranberries reduce the impact of the HBGA-interaction, which is achieved by permanent mutilation or temporary inhibition of some areas of the capsid protein. Virus-like particles (VLPs) such as Baculovirus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon systems developed from genetic manipulation of the capsid protein of the norovirus have been instrumental to the study of norovirus pathogenicity. The noroviruses, example GII.4 viruses, continue to stay in human mainly by herd immunity and adaptation to the found environment.
Time of exposure and the amount of phytochemicals play important roles in modulating norovirus infections.