Arpita Roy, Malathi Ramalinga, Okjin J. Kim, Juliet Chijioke, Solomon Lynch, Stephen Byers, Deepak Kumar (2017). Multiple roles of RARRES1 in prostate cancer: Autophagy induction and angiogenesis inhibition. PLOS One.
Cancer Research Laboratory, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, United States of America
Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States of America
JLC-BBRI Nutrition Research lab, North Carolina Central University, Kannapolis, North Carolina, United States of America, Julius L. Chambers Biomedical Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a major health concern in men worldwide. Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1)/ Tazarotene-induced gene-1 (TIG-1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that exerts its tumor suppressor function via unknown mechanisms. Epigenetic silencing of RARRES1 leads to its loss in several types of cancer, including PCa. Determining the molecular mechanisms that mediate the tumor suppressor role of RARRES1 in PCa is the focus of our study.
Our data indicates that RARRES1 over expression in PCa cell lines represses mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. RARRES1 expression induces the levels of autophagy-related genes, beclin, ATG3 and increases LC3B-II conversion. A significant induction of SIRT1 along with mTOR inhibition is noted on RARRES1 expression. Furthermore, RARRES1 over expression elevates the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase. Our results also indicate that RARRES1 expression inhibits angiogenesis in endothelial cells.
In summary, the data presented here indicate that forced expression of RARRES1 in PCa cells (a) induces ER stress and autophagic response; (b) increases SIRT1 levels; and (c) higher levels of anti-oxidant enzymes. Our study also implicates the role of RARRES1 as a novel anti-angiogenic molecule. Overall this study reports the molecular players that RARRES1 modulates to serve as a tumor suppressor molecule. Future studies will help determine the in vivo mechanisms by which RARRES1 may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention both in cancer and in angiogenesis-related disorders.