Journal Articles

Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

February 08, 2018

Georgousopoulou Ekavi N., D’Cunha Nathan M., Mellor Duane D., Tyrovolas Stefanos, Naumovski Nenad, Foscolou Alexandra, Bountziouka Vassiliki, Gotsis Efthimios, Metallinos George, Tyrovola Dimitra, Piscopo Suzanne, Valacchi Giuseppe, Tsakountakis Nikos, Zeimbekis Akis, Tur Josep-Antoni, Matalas Antonia-Leda, Polychronopoulos Evangelos, Lionis Christos, Sidossis Labros, Panagiotakos Demosthenes B., and MEDIS Study Group. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. February 2018, 16(1): 20-28.

Author Affiliations

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.
School of Life Science, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Nutrition, Family and Consumer Studies Office, University of Malta, Msida, Republic of Malta.
Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Animal Science Department, Plants for Human Health Institute, NC State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina.
Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
Health Center of Kalloni, General Hospital of Mitilini, Mitilini, Greece.
Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Universitat de les Illes Balears & CIBERobn, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
Department of Kinesiology and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a combination of features has been known to significantly increase cardiovascular disease risk, while MetS presence is linked to lifestyle parameters, including physical activity and dietary habits; recently, the potential impact of sleeping habits has also become an issue under consideration. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sleep quantity in several MetS components.

Methods: Design: a cross-sectional observational study. Setting: 26 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece. Participants: during 2005–2017, 3130 older (aged 65–100 years) Mediterranean residents were voluntarily enrolled. Measurements: dietary habits (including MedDietScore assessment), physical activity status, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleeping and smoking habits), and clinical profile aspects, including MetS components [i.e., waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], were derived through standard procedures.

Results: The number of daily hours of sleep was independently associated with greater waist circumference [b coefficient/hr = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–1.49], higher LDL-cholesterol levels (b/hr = 3.84, 95% CI: 0.63–7.05), and lower diastolic blood pressure levels (b/hr = −0.98, 95% CI: −1.57 to −0.39) after adjusting for participants’ age, gender, body mass index, daily walking time, level of adherence to Mediterranean diet, and smoking status. No association was revealed between hours of sleep per day and fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-C, and systolic blood pressure.

Conclusions: Increased hours of sleep is an indicator of metabolic disorders among elderly individuals, and further research is needed to identify the paths through which sleep quantity is linked to MetS features in different age groups.

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