Journal Articles

The Latino Eyelid: Anthropometric Analysis of a Spectrum of Findings

December 15, 2016

Fry CL, Naugle TC, Cole SA, Gelfond J, Chittoor G, Mariani AF, Goros MW, Haik BG, Voruganti VS. The Latino eyelid: anthropometric analysis of a spectrum of findings. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Nov 15.

Author Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas
Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas
Department of Nutrition and University of North Carolina Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, North Carolina
Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center at Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.


Published anthropometric measurements of the Latino eyelid are limited. This study describes features spanning the morphologic range from non-Latino whites to East Asians in the spectrum of the Latino eyelid.
A cross-sectional study of 68 people (32 Latinos, 18 non-Latino whites, and 18 East Asians, ages 18-39), approved by the Institutional Review Board and HIPAA-compliant, was performed. Saliva samples determined genetic components. Indirect anthropometric measurements were performed with ImageJ software. Eyelid measurements included margin reflex distance, palpebral fissure height, eyelid crease height, orbital height, horizontal fissure length, inner and outer canthal distances, medial and lateral canthal angles, and lateral canthal angle of inclination. Additionally, exophthalmometry and epicanthal folds were recorded.
Analysis of 184 markers from HumanExome Chip data revealed distinct clustering patterns. Genetically, the Asian participants were in 1 group, the whites in another group, and the Latinos spanned the spectrum between these 2 groups. In Latinos, the inner canthal distance and lateral canthal angle of inclination were similar to Asians, whereas the eyelid crease spanned the range from Asians to whites. Half of the Latinos had epicanthal folds.
Latinos possess a spectrum of eyelid features spanning the morphologic characteristics from those of non-Latino whites to those of East Asians. These normative data on Latinos from Texas and Mexico aid in the diagnoses of Latino eyelid disorders and are a reference for optimizing oculofacial surgery outcomes.

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