Pei Wang, Ronghui Wang, Yingdong Zhu, and Shengmin Sang (2017). Interindividual Variability in Metabolism of -Shogaol by Gut Microbiota. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Abstract-Shogaol (6S), one of the major bioactive components in dry ginger, is attracting considerable attention because of its wide spectrum of biological activities, but its metabolic fate is still not fully understood. In the present study, the microbial metabolism of 6S was examined for the first time in in vitro batch fecal fermentation system and in mice. Two major microbial metabolites were detected and identified as 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9) and 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11). Our results indicated that reductions of the double bond and the ketone group are the major metabolic pathways of 6S by the human gut microbiota. We also observed the interindividual variability in the metabolism of M11 to M9 by human gut microbiota. In addition, we demonstrated that the glucuronidated form of 6S and its metabolites could be rapidly de-conjugated by human gut microbiota and in mice, which can be regarded as a reactive process taking place in the intestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving the identification of the microbial metabolites of 6S in an in vitro fermentation system, and the first demonstration of the critical role of gut microbiota in producing the bioactive free form of 6S and its metabolites in the intestinal tract in mice.