Inhibitory Effects of Wild Blueberry Anthocyanins and Other Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Acute and Chronic Inflammation in Vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Jan 17, 2014. [Epub ahead of print] Esposito D, Chen A, Grace MH, Komarnytsky S, Lila MA.
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University , Kannapolis, North Carolina.
Wild lowbush blueberries ( Vaccinium angustifolium Ait) are a rich source of anthocyanins and other flavonoids with anti-inflammatory activities; however, their individual effects on cellular signaling remain to be elucidated. This study determined the capacity of blueberry bioactives to protect murine RAW 264.7 macrophages from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Fractionation of the crude extract (CE) into polyphenol-rich (PPR), anthocyanin-rich (ANC), and proanthocyanidin-rich (PAC) fractions and an ethyl acetate fraction (EA) revealed that PPR, ANC, and PAC components most effectively suppressed mRNA biomarkers of acute inflammation (Cox-2, iNOS, and IL-1β). Among major polyphenols found in the wild blueberries, malvidin-3-glucoside was significantly more effective than epicatechin or chlorogenic acid in reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in vitro.
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