Influence of Pistachios on Performance and Exercise-Induced Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Immune Dysfunction, and Metabolite Shifts in Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 19, Nieman DC1, Scherr J2, Luo B3, Meaney MP1, Dréau D4, Sha W5, Dew DA1, Henson DA6, Pappan KL7.
- Appalachian State University, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC, United States of America.
- 2Department of Prevention and Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany.
- 3Department of Physiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.
- 4Charlotte Research Institute & Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, United States of America.
- 5Bioinformatics Services Division, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC, United States of America.
- 6Department of Biology, Immunology Laboratory, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, United States of America.
- 7Metabolon Inc., Durham, NC, United States of America.
Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery frominflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts.
Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 19) engaged in two 75-km time trials after 2-weeks pistachio or no pistachio supplementation, with a 2-week washout period. Subjects came to the lab in an overnight fasted state, and ingested water only or 3 oz. pistachioswith water before and during exercise. Blood samples were collected 45 min pre-exercise, and immediately post-, 1.5-h post-, and 21-h post-exercise, and analyzed for plasma cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP), granulocyte phagocytosis (GPHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GOBA), and shifts in metabolites.
Performance time for the 75-km time trial was 4.8% slower under pistachio conditions (2.84±0.11 and 2.71±0.07 h, respectively, P = 0.034). Significant time effects were shown for plasma cytokines, CRP, F2-IsoP, GPHAG, and GOBA, with few group differences. Metabolomics analysis revealed 423 detectable compounds of known identity, with significant interaction effects for 19 metabolites, especially raffinose, (12Z)-9,10-Dihydroxyoctadec-12-enoate (9,10-DiHOME), and sucrose. Dietary intake of raffinose was 2.19±0.15 and 0.35±0.08 mg/d during the pistachio and no pistachio periods, and metabolomics revealed that colon raffinose and sucrose translocated to the circulation during exercise due to increased gut permeability. The post-exercise increase in plasma raffinose correlated significantly with 9,10-DiHOME and other oxidative stress metabolites.
In summary, 2-weeks pistachio nut ingestion was associated with reduced 75-km cycling time trial performance and increased post-exercise plasma levels of raffinose, sucrose, and metabolites related to leukotoxic effects and oxidative stress.