David C. Nieman 1, Nicholas D. Gillitt 2, Kevin J. Knagge 3, Huiyuan Chen 3, Courtney L. Goodman 1, Christopher R. Capps 1, Zachary L. Shue 1 and Nicole Heyl 1 (2017). Influence of Carbohydrate Ingestion from Bananas or Sugar Beverage on 9- and 13-Hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODE) During Recovery from 75-km Cycling. The FASEB Journal 31(1).
1. Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC
2. Dole Nutrition Research Laboratory, Kannapolis, NC
3. David H. Murdock Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC
Linoleic acid, an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the direct precursor to oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAMs) including 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (9 + 13 HODE). 9 + 13 HODE are stable and abundant oxidation products in plasma, play a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and are elevated during recovery from intensive and long-duration exercise. Carbohydrate intake has multiple benefits for the exercising athlete, including enhanced glucose availability to the working muscle, resulting in reduced post-exercise cortisol and epinephrine levels, decreased leukocytosis and phagocytosis, and lower inflammatory cytokines. The effect of carbohydrate intake on post-exercise HODEs is unknown, and the purpose of this study was to compare ingestion of Cavendish bananas with an equicaloric, sugar-only beverage or water alone on plasma 9 + 13 HODE levels during recovery from an intensive 75-km cycling bout (183.9±5.8 min across all trials). Participants included 16 male and female cyclists (age 39.9±2.4 years) who regularly competed in road races and were capable of cycling 75-km at race pace. This study utilized a randomized crossover approach, and participants engaged in three 75-km cycling time trials while ingesting water only, bananas and water, and a 6% sugar beverage in an overnight fasted state, with data analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), within subjects approach. Before the exercise bout, participants ingested 5 ml/kg water alone, or the 6% sugar beverage or Cavendish banana (with water) adjusted to quantities providing 0.4 g carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight (g carb/kg). During the cycling bout, water was ingested at a rate of 3 ml/kg every 15 minutes, with carbohydrate intake from the 6% sugar beverage and banana adjusted to 0.2 g carb/kg every 15 minutes. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and then at 1.5 h and 21 h post-exercise. Detection of plasma 9 + 13 HODE was conducted on an UPLC system coupled with Quattro Premier XE MS (Waters, Milford, MA) operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) negative mode. The overall pattern of change in 9 + 13 HODE was significantly different between treatment trials (interaction p-value <0.05), with 94%, 63%, and 72% increases immediately post-exercise, and 22%, 4.2%, and 6.8% increases 1.5 h post-exercise in the water alone, banana, and sugar beverage trials, respectively. Plasma 9 + 13 HODE was back to pre-exercise levels in all trials by the next morning (21 h post-exercise). In conclusion, these data indicate that carbohydrate ingestion from bananas with water or a 6% sugar beverage compared to water alone attenuates the post-exercise increase in plasma 9 + 13 HODE following 75-km of intensive cycling in overnight fasted athletes.