Shengmin Sang 1, Yingdong Zhu 1, Wei Sha 2 and Pei Wang 1 (2016). Nutrimetabolomics fingerprinting to identify biomarkers of whole grain wheat intake. The FASEB Journal, 30(1).
1. North Carolina A&T State University, Kannapolis, NC
2. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Kannapolis, NC
Increased whole grain (WG) consumption has been inversely associated with the risk for developing some diet-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies, however, have failed to generate consistent results on this topic due to a lack of accurate tools to assess dietary intake of whole grains. Nutritional epidemiology research needs more reliable and quantitative methods for measuring dietary intake of specific foods. Using a targeted LC/MS based metabolomic approach, we established the metabolic fingerprints of the major phytochemicals in WG wheat in human urine including metabolites of alkylresorcinols, benzoxazinoids, lignans, and phytosterols, as well as microbial-derived metabolites. Using a non-targeted LC/MS based global metabolomic approach, we investigated the impact of WG wheat bread intake on the endogenous urinary metabolome. Metabolic profiling revealed a number of differences relating to the consumption of WG wheat bread vs. refined grain wheat bread, such as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminophenol sulfate, ferulic acid 4-sulfate, 2-acetamidophenol sulfate, and cysteine. Using the targeted and non-targeted nutrimetabolomic approaches, we are able to develop multiple metabolites as the potential biomerkers of WG wheat intake.