Identification of phase II metabolites of thiol-conjugated -shogaol in mouse urine using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, September 2012. Chen H, Sang S.
Center for Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University.
Ginger is frequently consumed as a spice and has numerous medicinal properties. Extensive research has characterized the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities of ginger. Previously, we reported the mercapturic acid pathway as a major metabolic route of -shogaol in mice and the thiol conjugates of -shogaol existed in the glucuronidated and sulfated forms in mouse urine. However, their structures are still unknown. In the present study, we further investigated the phase II metabolism of thiol-conjugated -shogaol in mouse urine, in which we identified sixteen phase II metabolites of thiol-conjugated -shogaol: 5-cysteinyl--shogaol glucuronide (9), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl--shogaol glucuronide (10), 5-cysteinylglycinyl--shogaol glucuronide (11), 5-methylthio--shogaol glucuronide (12), 5-cysteinyl-M6 glucuronide (13 and 14), 5-cysteinyl-M6 sulfate (15 and 16), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-M6 glucuronide (17 and 18), 5-cysteinylglycinyl-M6 glucuronide (19 and 20), 5-cysteinylglycinyl-M6 sulfate (21 and 22), and 5-methylthio-M6 glucuronide (23 and 24) using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of these metabolites were confirmed by analyzing their MS(n) (n=1-4) spectra as well as comparing with the tandem mass spectra of authentic standards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report involving identification of phase II urinary metabolites of -shogaol in mice.
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