C. Wyatt Shields, John P. White, Erica G. Osta, Jerishma Patel, Shashank Rajkumar, Nickolas Kirby, Jean-Philippe Therrien, Stefan Zauscher (2018). Encapsulation and controlled release of retinol from silicone particles for topical delivery. Journal of Controlled Release.
NSF Research Triangle Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
NSF Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Department of Skin Biology, EnDev Laboratories, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
Retinol, a derivative of vitamin A, is a ubiquitous compound used to treat acne, reduce wrinkles and protect against conditions like psoriasis and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as the primary active ingredient (AI) in many skin care formulations, its efficacy is often limited by an extreme sensitivity to degrade and toxicity at high concentrations. While microencapsulation is an appealing method to help overcome these issues, few microencapsulation strategies have made a major translational impact due to challenges with complexity, cost, limited protection of the AI and poor control of the release of the AI. We have developed a class of silicone particles that addresses these challenges for the encapsulation, protection and controlled release of retinol and other hydrophobic compounds. The particles are prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of silane monomers, which enables their rapid and facile synthesis at scale while maintaining a narrow size distribution (i.e., CV < 20%). We show that our particles can: (i) encapsulate retinol with high efficiency (>85%), (ii) protect retinol from degradation (yielding a half-life 9× greater than unencapsulated retinol) and (iii) slowly release retinol over several hours (at rates from 0.14 to 0.67 μg cm−2 s−1/2). To demonstrate that the controlled release of retinol from the particles can reduce irritation, we performed a double blind study on human subjects and found that formulations containing our particles were 12–23% less irritating than identical formulations containing Microsponge® particles (an industry standard by Amcol, Inc.). To show that the silicone particles can elicit a favorable biological response, similar to the Microsponge® particles, we applied both formulations to reconstructed human epidermal tissues and found an upregulation of keratin 19 (K19) and a downregulation of K10, indicating that the reduced irritation observed in the human study was not caused by reduced activity. We also found a decrease in the production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) compared to formulations containing the Microsponge particles, suggesting lower irritation levels and supporting the findings from the human study. Finally, we show that the silicone particles can encapsulate other AIs, including betamethasone, N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), homosalate and ingenol mebutate, establishing these particles as a true platform technology.