Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1). Food Chemistry. E-pub January 2014. David M. Ribnicky, Diana E. Roopchand, Andrew Oren, Mary Grace, Alexander Poulev, Mary Ann Lila, Robert Havenaar and Ilya Raskin.
School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey; Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, North Carolina Research Campus; TNO, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands.
The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0 ± 10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3 ± 10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism.
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