David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue, Jennifer E. McBride (2017). Effect of Four Weeks Ingestion of Tomato-Based Carotenoids on Exercise-Induced Inflammation, Muscle Damage, and Oxidative Stress in Endurance Runners. The International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, pp. 1-26.
Appalachian State University, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC
This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover trial determined if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato extract with 11 mg lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) for 4 weeks would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress post-exercise and during recovery from a 2-h running bout that included 30 minutes of -10% downhill running. Study participants ingested the T-LPP supplement or placebo with the evening meal for 4 weeks prior to running 2 h at high intensity. Blood samples and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were taken pre- and post-4-weeks supplementation, and immediately following the 2-h run, and then 1-h-, 24-h-, and 48-h post-run. After a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the opposite treatment, and repeated all procedures. Plasma lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene increased significantly in T-LPP compared to placebo (P<0.001 for each). Significant time effects were shown for serum creatine kinase (CK), DOMS, C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9+13 HODEs), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and six plasma cytokines (P<0.001 for each). The pattern of increase for serum myoglobin differed between T-LPP and placebo (interaction effect, P=0.016, with lower levels in T-LPP), but not for CK, DOMS, CRP, the six cytokines, 9+13 HODEs, and FRAP. No significant time or interaction effects were measured for plasma-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OxodG). In summary, supplementation with T-LPP over a 4-week period increased plasma carotenoid levels 73% and attenuated post-exercise increases in the muscle damage biomarker myoglobin, but not inflammation and oxidative stress.