Journal Articles

Effect of Four Weeks Ingestion of Tomato-Based Carotenoids on Exercise-Induced Inflammation, Muscle Damage, and Oxidative Stress in Endurance Runners

November 16, 2017

David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue, Jennifer E. McBride (2017). Effect of Four Weeks Ingestion of Tomato-Based Carotenoids on Exercise-Induced Inflammation, Muscle Damage, and Oxidative Stress in Endurance Runners. The International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, pp. 1-26.

Author Affiliations

Appalachian State University, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC

Abstract

This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover trial determined if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato extract with 11 mg lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) for 4 weeks would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress post-exercise and during recovery from a 2-h running bout that included 30 minutes of -10% downhill running. Study participants ingested the T-LPP supplement or placebo with the evening meal for 4 weeks prior to running 2 h at high intensity. Blood samples and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were taken pre- and post-4-weeks supplementation, and immediately following the 2-h run, and then 1-h-, 24-h-, and 48-h post-run. After a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the opposite treatment, and repeated all procedures. Plasma lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene increased significantly in T-LPP compared to placebo (P<0.001 for each). Significant time effects were shown for serum creatine kinase (CK), DOMS, C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9+13 HODEs), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and six plasma cytokines (P<0.001 for each). The pattern of increase for serum myoglobin differed between T-LPP and placebo (interaction effect, P=0.016, with lower levels in T-LPP), but not for CK, DOMS, CRP, the six cytokines, 9+13 HODEs, and FRAP. No significant time or interaction effects were measured for plasma-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OxodG). In summary, supplementation with T-LPP over a 4-week period increased plasma carotenoid levels 73% and attenuated post-exercise increases in the muscle damage biomarker myoglobin, but not inflammation and oxidative stress.

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