Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Reproductibe Toxicology. February 22. 2014. [Epub ahead of print] May PA, Hamrick KJ, Corbin KD, Hasken JM, Marais AS, Brooke LE, Blankenship J, Hoyme HE, Gossage JP.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, NC Research Campus, Gillings School of Global Public Health; The University of New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA), Albuquerque; Navigate Nutrition Consulting, PLLC; Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa; University of Cape Town, Foundation for Alcohol Related Research (FARR), Cape Town, South Africa; Sanford Research and Sanford School of Medicine, The University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls.
In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population.