Developmental Trajectories for Visuo-Spatial Attention are Altered by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Longitudinal FMRI Study Cereb Cortex. 2014 Aug Gautam P1, Nuñez SC1, Narr KL2, Mattson SN3, May PA4, Adnams CM5, Riley EP3, Jones KL6, Kan EC1, Sowell ER1.
- Developmental Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine at USC/Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
- 2Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
- 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
- 4Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Nutrition Research Institute, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA.
- 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
- 6Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals brain activation abnormalities during visuo-spatial attention and working memory among those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in cross-sectional reports, but little is known about how activation changes over time during development within FASD or typically developing children. We studied 30 controls and 31 individuals with FASD over 2 years (7-14 years at first participation) with a total of 122 scans, as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Despite comparable performance, there were significant group differences in visuo-spatial activation over time bilaterally in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Controls showed an increase in signal intensity in these multiple regions whereas FASD participants showed a decrease in brain activation. Effects were also found in 2 small independent samples from the USA, corroborating the findings from the larger group. Results suggest that the long-lasting effect of prenatal alcoholmay impact the maturation of visuo-spatial attention and differentiate those with FASD from controls. Based on this first longitudinal fMRI study in FASD children, our novel findings suggest a possible neural mechanism for attention deficits common among individuals with FASD.
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