Journal Articles

Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effects

February 24, 2015

Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effectsQueensland University, Feb 2015, Jonathan M. Peake1, Paul Della Gatta2, Katsuhiko Suzuki3, David C. Nieman4

Affiliations: 1 School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Sciences,
Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
2 Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin
University, Melbourne, Australia
3 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Cooperative Major in Advanced Health
Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology/Waseda University, Tokorozawa,
Saitama, Japan
4 Human Performance Laboratory, Appalachian State University, North Carolina Research
Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina, USA

2 Cytokines are important mediators of various aspects of health and disease, including
3 appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and
4 atrophy. Over the past decade or so, considerable attention has focused on the potential for
5 regular exercise to counteract a range of disease states by modulating cytokine production.
6 Exercise stimulates moderate to large increases in the circulating concentrations of
7 interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor,
8 and smaller increases in tumor necrosis factor-, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-1,
9 brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IL-12p35/p40 and IL-15. Although many of these
10 cytokines are also expressed in skeletal muscle, not all are released from skeletal muscle
11 into the circulation during exercise. Conversely, some cytokines that are present in the
12 circulation are not expressed in skeletal muscle after exercise. The reasons for these
13 discrepant cytokine responses to exercise are unclear. In this review, we address these
14 uncertainties by summarizing the capacity of skeletal muscle cells to produce cytokines,
15 analyzing other potential cellular sources of circulating cytokines during exercise, and
16 discussing the soluble factors and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cytokine
17 synthesis (e.g., RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs, suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins,
18 soluble receptors).

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