Compounds leached from quinoa seeds inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species, International Journal of Cosmetic Science – Wiley Online Library, Dec 2014,Brittany L. Graf1, Diana M. Cheng1, Debora Esposito2, Tara Shertel1, Alexander Poulev1, Nathalie Plundrich2, David Itenberg1, Nava Dayan3, Mary Ann Lila2 and Ilya Raskin1,*
Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA2
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA3
Nava Dayan, LLC
Compounds leached from quinoa seeds inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species – Graf – International Journal of Cosmetic Science – Wiley Online Library
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a seed crop rich in bioactive compounds including phytoecdysones (especially 20-hydroxecdysone, 20HE), polyphenols, proteins, and essential fatty acids. We previously reported a method to leach and concentrate quinoa bioactives into a complex phytochemical mixture termed quinoa leachate (QL). Here, we aimed to determine the effect of QL and its chemically distinct fractions on five biochemical endpoints relevant to skin care applications: (1) cell viability, (2) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mRNA expression, (3) MMP enzymatic activity, (4) tyrosinase enzymatic activity, and (5) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
QL was fractionated and chemically characterized using column chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cell viability was determined using a MTT assay in four mammalian cell lines. MMP-1 mRNA expression was assessed in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) via qRT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of MMP-9 and tyrosinase were measured using fluorometric and colorimetric in vitro assays, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS production was determined in human dermal fibroblasts by fluorescence intensity of an oxidant-sensitive probe.
QL was separated into three fractions: (1) carbohydrate-rich fraction (QL-C; 71.3% w/w of QL); (2) phytoecdysone, polyphenol, protein-rich fraction (QL-P, 13.3% w/w of QL); (3) oil-rich fraction (QL-O, 10.8% w/w of QL). QL did not reduce cell viability in any of the four cell lines tested. QL, QL-P, and QL-O each significantly inhibited MMP-1 mRNA expression in HDF at a concentration of 5 μg mL−1. QL and QL-P also significantly inhibited MMP-9 enzymatic activity, while QL-P demonstrated significant tyrosinase enzymatic inhibition. Furthermore, QL, QL-P, QL-O, and 20HE significantly inhibited intracellular ROS production.
This study is the first to demonstrate the MMP, tyrosinase, and ROS inhibiting properties of multiple different phytochemical components derived from quinoa seeds. Our work indicates that quinoa phytochemicals may play a role in the treatment and prevention of skin aging through a multiplicity of effects.
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