Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Cardiovascular Risk: Insights from the NAVIGATOR Trial International Journal of Cardiology Aug 11, 2014, Pedro Barros e Silvaa, Robert M. Califfb, Jie-Lena Sunc, John J.V. McMurrayd, Rury Holmane, Steven Haffnerf, Laine Thomasc, Renato D. Lopesc
- Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Duke Translational Medicine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK Diabetes Trials Unit, Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, San Antonio, TX
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth largest cause of death worldwide. Although initially considered a pulmonary disease, COPD is progressively being viewed as a systemic condition, and most prior observations have demonstrated a relationship between COPD and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population . Little is known about this association in patients at higher risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate the association between COPD and long-term clinical outcomes, and 2) assess the association between COPD and the development of diabetes mellitus in a pre-diabetic population at high risk for cardiovascular events.