Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the glutathione levels in cancer cells by -shogaol. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. January 16, 2013. Chen H, Soroka DN, Hu Y, Chen X, Sang S.
Center for Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University.
Shogaols, a series of major constituents in dried ginger with the most abundant being -, -, and -shogaols, show much higher anticancer potencies than gingerols. Previously, we reported the mercapturic acid pathway as a major metabolic route for -shogaol in mice. However, it is still unclear how the side chain length affects the metabolism of shogaols and how shogaols are metabolized in humans.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We first investigate the metabolism of -shogaol in mouse urine, and then investigate the biotransformation of shogaols in human urine. Our results show that eight major thiol-conjugated metabolites of -shogaol were detected in mouse urine, while six major thiol-conjugated metabolites of -shogaol, two thiol-conjugated metabolites of -shogaol, and two thiol-conjugated metabolites of -shogaol were detected in urine collected from human after drinking ginger tea, using LC/ESI-MS/MS. Our results clearly indicate the mercapturic acid pathway is a major metabolic route for -shogaol in mice and for shogaols in human. Furthermore, we also investigated the regulation of glutathione (GSH) by -shogaol in human colon cancer cells HCT-116. Our results show -shogaol, after initially depleting glutathione levels, can subsequently restore and increase GSH levels over time.
Shogaols are metabolized extensively in mouse and human to form thiol-conjugated metabolites and GSH might play an important role in the cancer-preventive activity of ginger.
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.