Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity from Mamuyo (Styrax ramirezii Greenm) Fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. November 17, 2015. Michael A. Timmers (A), Jorge L. Guerrero-Medina (A,B), Debora Esposito(A), Mary H. Grace(A), Octavio Paredes-López(C), Pedro A. García-Saucedo(B), and Mary Ann Lila (A).
A Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, NCRC, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081, United States
B Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Uruapan, Michoacán, Mexico
C Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
Extracts of Styrax ramirezii Greenm., a fruit traditionally valued for health and wellness in Mexico, were analyzed phytochemically and evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Six norneolignans were identified by HPLC-TOF-MS, and the two major compounds were isolated for further evaluation. The effects of the isolated norneolignans, egonol and homoegonol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and biomarkers of inflammation were evaluated. Of the tested compounds, egonol potently inhibited the production of NO and also significantly reduced the release of ROS. Consistent with these observations, the mRNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (0.668 ± 0.108), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (0.553 ± 0.007), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (0.093 ± 0.005), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (0.298 ± 0.076) were reduced by egonol. The activity for both egonol and homoegonol increased in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest the potential of S. ramirezii Greenm. fruit to contribute to a healthy diet, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.