California Table Grape Consumption Reduces Adiposity, Hepatic Triglycerides, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Abundance of Sulfidogenic Bacteria in Mice, Apr 2015, The FASEB Journal, Jessie Baldwin1, Brian Collins1, Patricia Wolfe2, Wan Shen1, Chia-Chi Chuang3, Wei Zhong4, Paula Cooney1, H Rex Gaskins2 and Michael McIntosh1
- 1Nutrition UNC-Greensboro NC United States
- 2Animal Science University of Illinois IL United States
- 3Pathology Wake Forest School of Medicine Winston Salem NC United States
- 4Nutrition NCRC Kannapolis NC United States
This study examined the extent to which consuming polyphenol-rich, California table grapes (3 or 5%, w/w) reduces adiposity, hepatic steatosis, markers of inflammation or lipid metabolism, or impacts gut microbiota in male C57BL/6J mice fed a butter-rich diet for 11 weeks. Total body and inguinal fat content were reduced in mice fed grapes at both levels compared to their high-fat, sugar controls. Liver weights, triglycerides, and expression of lipogenic Gpat1 were decreased in mice fed 5% grapes compared to 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of the lipogenic genes Pparg2, Scd1, Fabp4, and Gpat1 compared to 3% controls. In white adipose tissue (WAT), mice fed 5% grapes had decreased mRNA levels of the lipogenic gene Agpat2 compared to controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation in WAT or intestine, 3% grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp. and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene, and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkersmansia muciniphilia compared to controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the high fat-induced impairment in localization of the intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1. These data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming a diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. Funded by the California Table Grape Commission.